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Three major contributors to the development of this system, Jiao Shunfa, Fang Yunpeng, and Tang Songyan, each proposed different diagrams and groupings of scalp acupuncture points.
For example, Jiao divided the scalp points into motor and sensory areas, Fang into writing speech and reading memory centers, and Tang into upper, middle, and lower burner areas.
Several different methods of needling were proposed. Jiao advocated rapid twirling with penetrating and transverse needling; Fang favored the slight twirling method and oblique needling; while Tang recommended long-duration needle retention with superficial stimulation of the needles, using the lifting and thrusting method.
Thus, scalp acupuncture is not really a single system, but a multiplicity of systems still in development, with a year history of practical experience.
A standard of nomenclature for acupuncture points has been developed adopted in and reconfirmed in , indicating 14 therapeutic lines or zones based on a combination of the thoughts of the different schools of scalp acupuncture.
However, it is often necessary to carefully review the zones relied upon by an individual practitioner, as few have adopted the unified pattern.
Since coming to the U. Zhu traces the origins of modern scalp acupuncture to the work of Huang Xuelong, who in introduced the concept that there is a relationship between the scalp and the cerebral cortex.
Several acupuncturists pursued this line, seeking points and zones on the scalp that would treat diseases of the brain.
Initial results of clinical work indicated that acupuncture applied to the scalp had good effect on diseases that were associated with cerebral damage, such as stroke.
Its applications were then extended to virtually all other diseases, but a focus on nervous system disorders is still dominant.
Other physicians in China trace the acceptance of scalp acupuncture as a new system to the development of ear acupuncture, which is also thought to be especially useful for neurological disorders due to the location of needling at the head.
According to Dr. Zhu, Baihui GV is the basis for all of the scalp points. Its upper part lies beneath the scalp, at the vertex, at point Baihui. Traditionally, this point is treated to stabilize the ascending yang; it is also needled in order to clear the senses and calm the spirit.
The external pathway of the Governing Vessel is used to divide the left and right sides of the scalp. The left side governs qi and the right side governs blood.
Needling of the left side has a greater impact on disorders of the left side of the head and neck, but of the right side of the body below the neck, and conversely.
The zone names are simply based on anatomical descriptions. Following is a review of the primary scalp acupuncture zones See Appendix 1 for a picture of the zones.
The Eding zone runs from the forehead to the top of the head. The width is 1 cun and the length is 5 cun. The Eding zone governs the yin side front of the body, running from the perineum GV area of needling to the head GV area of needling.
The zone is divided into four regions. This region is used to treat the whole head and neck region. The effects of treatment in this region include calming the spirit, opening the orifices, arousing the mind, and brightening the eyes.
To treat, insert the needle along the side of the zone that corresponds with the side of the head or neck that is affected. That is, although treatment usually includes one needle in the center of the zone along the GV line , if the problem is on the right side of the head or throat, place the needle on the right side of the zone.
For example, treating blurred vision in the right eye, place one needle in the right side of the Eding 1 zone or insert the needle at the center of the zone and direct it to the right side of the zone.
The direction of needling is usually towards the face. Eding 2 is the second quarter of the zone, extending from GV to GV This region is primarily used to treat disorders of the chest region.
The functions include opening the chest and regulating qi, opening the lungs, stopping wheezing, and calming the spirit.
If the problem is on one side of the body, needle the side of the zone on the opposite side contralateral. Eding 3 is the third quarter of the zone, extending from GV to GV This region is primarily used to treat disorders of the middle burner including treatment of acute appendicitis.
The functions include stopping vomiting and diarrhea, regulating the liver qi, and regulating the gallbladder.
To treat, use the contralateral side. Eding 4 is the last quarter of the zone, extending from GV to GV This region is used to treat the lower burner and the lower limbs.
The functions include regulating the menses, strengthening the kidneys and promoting urination. Needle on the contralateral side; if the disorder is central, as in bladder dysfunction, needle the central line of the zone or both sides.
The direction of needling is usually towards the back of the head. As described above, Zhu follows the principal that if the disorder affects the left or right side of the body, then treatment that is intended to affect the head or neck is done on the same side of the zone as the side of the disorder ipsilateral , but if it is below the neck, then the needle is placed on the opposite side of the zone.
This approach has been followed by many scalp acupuncture specialists in China. However, a few researchers claim that clinical evidence does not support the need to treat one side or the other; rather, one can alternate sides on subsequent days.
At this time, there is probably insufficient data to demonstrate that one or the other approach is significantly better. Alternate side needling might be better tolerated by the patient when daily needling is used.
The zone is 1 cun wide. It governs the spine, the yang aspect of the body back. It can be divided into 4 regions, equally spaced from each other.
This region is mainly used for pain. Dingzhen 1 starting at GV governs the back of the head and the neck. Dingzhen 2 governs the vertebrae C-7 seventh cervical, base of the neck through T 10th thoracic.
Dingzhen 3 governs the vertebrae T through L-5 fifth lumbar. Dingzhen 4 ending at GV governs the sacrum and coccyx.
Needling here is painful, so it is rarely used. The Eding and Dingzhen zones together form a central line from the front to the back of the scalp.
In mapping the zones to the body structure, this line represents a continuum from head to abdominal base repeated twice, first covering the front of the body the more frontal points and then the back of the body.
The meeting point of the two zones, GV, can be used to treat the entire body, depending on the aim of the needle. Dingnie Zone. The Dingnie zone runs from the center top of the head to the temple, at an angle aiming to the cheekbones.
It can be divided into 3 equal parts, and each part is used as a representation of a body region that can be treated within the zone.
Dingnie 1 governs the lower limbs. The homunculus for this zone looks like a person is kneeling with their foot and thigh on top of each other near GV , and their knees pointing towards ST This zone does not include the hip joint.
Dingnie 2 governs the upper limbs. The homunculus for this zone like a person with their elbows bent. The elbow zone is near the region between Dingnie 1 and 2.
The upper arm not including the shoulder and wrist are mapped near the intersection between Dingnie 2 and 3. Dingnie 3 near ST-8 governs the head.
It covers motor-sensory problems. This zone is rarely used as it can be painful to needle; Eding 1 is usually used instead.
Mapping from the frontal hairline back, the top of the body is forward. Also, the sensory zone is toward the forward part of the Dingnie zone, while the motor zone is toward the back of the Dingnie zone.
Needling of this zone may include insertion from GV towards ST-8 or in the reverse direction. This zone is actually comprised of short and narrow segments running from the top of the forehead into the hair zone.
Epang 1 is used to treat acute diseases of the middle burner. Epang 2 is used to treat acute diseases of the lower burner. It is located halfway between GB and ST This mapping of the body runs from the center line GV, the Eding zone governing head and throat to the side, progressing from head to middle warmer to lower warmer.
Dingjie has a front zone— Dingjieqian— and a back zone— Dingjiehou. The Dingjie zone is a set of four short segments arrayed from the top of the head to the front and back sides of the head.
These are short lines radiating forward and back to the sides from GV, the meeting spot between the end of the Eding zone corresponding to the genital area and the beginning of the Dingzhen zone corresponding to the head and neck.
The front Dingjie zone treats an area of the body just above that treated by the end of the Eding zone, and the back Dingjie zone treats an area just below that treated by the beginning of the Dingzhen zone.
This area is used to treat the hips and inguinal area. It is used to treat the area above the scapula, the upper trapezius region.
Nieqian and Niehou Zones. The Nieqian meaning forward temple zone is near the temple, above and to the front of the sideburn, while the Niehou meaning back temple zone is set back from the temple over the top of the ear.
The zones at the sides of the head are rarely used because the needling tends to be painful. It is mainly used to treat diseases of the ear.
The Dingnie zones, which extend at angles towards the front of the head from GV to ST-8 on either side from the central Eding zone, overlap the central zone.
However, because Dingnie zone 3 is more painful to needle and, because treatment of the head is adequately accomplished in the Eding zone 1; Dingnie 3 is seldom used by Dr.
To visualize the mapping, imagine a person squatting down with arms bent, placing the elbow on the knee, with the hand by the shoulder. The beginning of Dingnie 1 is at the base of the foot, this overlaps with the upper thigh due to the squatting position, and then it maps upward to the knee; the zone then continues up the arm from the elbow towards the hand and shoulder, including the forearm in that same space Dingnie 2 ; finally, it follows up the head Dingnie 3.
Therefore, the needle enters the scalp behind the Dingnie zone. Dingnie zone 1 does not include the hips, and Dingnie zone 2 does not include the shoulder girdle; to treat those parts of the body, Dr.
Zhu relies primarily on the Dingnie zones. Aside from the standard zones, palpation of the scalp for tender points helps Zhu to identify the specific needling sites within the selected zone.
The Eding zone is the most frequently used of the scalp zones, with the Dingnie zones being used additionally for treating affected limbs.
When treating a neurological problem that affects the extremities, the needles are directed, along a zone, towards the opposite extremity.
Thus, for example, if the left leg is affected, the needle will be directed outward along Dingnie 1 on the right side of the scalp. Only for problems of the head and neck is the needling done on the same side of the scalp as the disorder.
For disorders that are not specific to a body location, such as hypertension or epilepsy, needling may be done on both sides of the zone.
If the disorder to be treated is associated with a degenerative disease involving a kidney deficiency syndrome common in elderly patients and those with chronic, degenerative diseases , then Eding zone 4 is usually needled.
A typical needling pattern is: one needle in the center of the zone, and one needle on either edge of the zone, about 0.
He selects a zone site for treatment, and inserts one needle along the zone and then inserts a second needle perpendicular to that one, going across the zone and crossing over the first needle.
As an example for right-knee pain, a needle is first directed along Dingnie 1 towards the left temple, and then a second needle is inserted across that one.
The second needle is stimulated by the draining method. In cases of quadriplegia, another crossing technique is used.
The first needle is inserted across the zone e. In some cases, a series of cross-over needles are inserted along the length of a zone this may incorporate as many as 3 pairs of needles.
The needle size often mentioned in Chinese texts for scalp acupuncture is 26, 28, or 30 gauge, which is suitable for rapid twirling techniques.
The needle must be long enough so that it is not inserted up to the handle, but short enough that there will not be any bending during insertion and manipulation.
The angle of insertion is typically 15—25 degrees. The patient should not feel pain, though there are some rarely used scalp points along the sides of the head, mentioned above, that typically produce pain.
Press besides the treatment zones with the nail of the thumb and first finger of the left hand, hold the needle with the right hand, and keep the needle tip closely against the nail.
By avoiding the hair follicle, one can minimize pain during insertion. The direction of needling is usually based on the mapping of the body within the zone being treated: the needle is aimed along the line of the zone toward that portion of the zone most closely corresponding to the area of the body that is affected by the injury or disease.
Although the distance from the skin surface to the skull is very short, there are several tissue layers: the skin, hypodermis, galea aponeurotica and occipito-frontalis muscles, subaproneurotic space, and pericranium.
The subaproneurotic space is a loose layer of connective tissue that is ideal for penetration during scalp needling: the needle slides in smoothly and does not cause pain, yet the desired needling sensation is strong.
If the angle of needling is too shallow, the needle will penetrate the skin and muscle layers and it will be difficult to get a smooth insertion.
Upon inserting the needles, stimulation is applied for 1—2 minutes see below for stimulation technique. The needles are manipulated again after intervals of 10—15 minutes, for 1—2 minutes each time, throughout the duration of the patient visit, which may be as long as 2—3 hours.
Sometimes, the interval between needle stimulation sessions is longer due to insufficient staff time when there are numerous patients, but usually within 30 minutes.
The needles should remain in the scalp for a minimum of 4 hours except for treatment of acute symptoms, in which case, 0.
However, for children and weak adults, the time of retention should be shorter. Zhu generally prefers long-term needle retention of 1—2 days; this is in contrast to the method of Jiao Shunfa, who advocated removing the needles after the basic manipulations.
At that time, new needles are inserted at different points. If several parts of the body are affected by the illness or injury, the points selected may be rotated through a cycle aimed at treating each of the different body parts.
There are two basic needling methods for manipulating the qi, designated jinqi and chouqi , that have been elucidated by Dr. Both are based on ancient techniques and involve a rapid, short distance movements.
Jinqi jin means move forward is a tonifying, thrusting method. Chouqi chou means to withdraw is a sedating, reducing method. It is based on forceful movement and a lifting motion.
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With a rich history of online development, we have become an undisputed leader in our industry.